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persuasion by william rogers

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Index

 

AARP, American Association of Retired People, 283-285, 294n15
Abbot, Bernice, 185
abductive reasoning. See
visual rhetoric
Abelson, Donald, 359, 368n13
accept or reject persuasive message, 12
accomplishment. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
achievers, consumer category. See
Stanford Research Institute, consumer categories
act. See
Burke’s dramaturgic theory
activity. See
models for: advertising   
Acton, Lord, 163, 294n18
actualizers, consumer category. See
Stanford Research Institute consumer categories
Aday, Sean, 336, 344n21
Adbusters, 334
ad hominem. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
ad populum. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
Adler, Mortimer, 371-372, 385n1
Adler, Ronald, 149-150, 166n8
advertisements:
    Bose campaign for noise reduction headphones, 306;
    ethics of, 127,128-129;
    features of, 327;
    and influence, 325-334;
    political, 326;
    responding to, 374-376;
    study of one-sidedness versus two-sidedness of, 234;   
    utilitarian versus symbolic values of, 374.
    as visual rhetoric, 262;
    See
also public-service print ads: creating your own; subliminal persuasion; vices, appeals to for persuasion; pathos in: advertising
adaptors. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
advocacy ad. See
advertisements, political
Advocacy Institute Training, 284
affection need. See
human needs: Schutz
Agence France-Presse, 117n21
agency. See
Burke’s dramaturgic theory
agent. See
Burke’s dramaturgic theory
aggression (super-assertion). See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
aggressive gamesmanship. See
paths to influence model
Agonism, 84
Ajzen, Icek, 20n12, 202, 220n11
Albarracin, Dolores, 239, 245n33
Albert, Ethel, 120, 140n2
Alberts, Jess, 65n15
Alexander the Great, 67, 159, 167n20
Algar, Selim, 270n30
aliteration. See
figures of speech
allegory. See
visual rhetoric
Allen, Bem, 244n16
American Association of Advertising Agencies, 127-128, 140n10
American Association of Retired People. See
AARP
American Revolution, propaganda used, 67
American Temperance Society, 313
amphibole. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
analytical studies, 226, 255
analogy warrant. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
Anatol, Karl, 244n4
anchor. See
social judgment theory
Anderson, Rolph, 362-363, 368n14
analytic studies, 225, 226-227
anecdotes or stories. See
openers for speeches
anger. See
Aristotle: paired emotions; behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
animated wall pictures, 188
anonymous feature of advertising. See
advertisements: features of
answers shortness. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
anticipated audience effect. See
audience effects: anticipated, surprise, ideosyncratic
Anti-Saloon League, 312-313
antithesis. See
visual rhetoric. See also figures of speech
AP (Associated Press), 336
aphorism, succinct statement. See
openers for speeches
appeal to authority. See
tactics of propaganda
appearance, 259. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
Applebaum, Ronald, 244n4
architecture and pathos. See
pathos in: architecture
architectural declaration of independence, 186
argument, compliance-gaining tactic, 55
argumentation:
    argument applied to works of art, 126;
    defined, 94;
    general model of, 102-103;
    logical versus dialectical vsersus rhetorical, 95;
    Toulmin model of, 103-107.
    See
also paths to influence model
Aristotle and:
    artistic versus inartistic proofs, 255-256;
    causes and effects categories, xvii;
    enthymeme, 44, 109-110, 173, 255;   
    logos, pathos, ethos, 44-48, 94, 119, 169. (See
also paths to influnce model);
    making cases, 4;
    metaphor, 258. (See
also figures of speech);
    paired emotions, 174;
    rhetorical criticism,17;
    theory of, 254-258;
    topoi, 255-256
Armitage, Christopher, 209, 221n19
Aronson, Elliot, 92n22, 281, 293n9, 320n28, 385n7
Arsel, Zeynep, 167n21
art and ethics. See
ethics: codes for
artifactics. See
nonverbal communication
artistic enthymeme, 125. See
also Aristotle: enthymeme
artistic proofs. See
Aristotle: theory of
ascendancy need. See
human needs: Rogers
Asen, Robert, 308
asking someone out, tactics for. See
interpersonal persuasion
assertive no. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
assimilation. See
social judgment theory
Associated Press. See
AP
association and learning theory, 194
association tactic, and See
Rank model
asyndeton, figure of speech. See
visual rhetoric
attack ad. See
advertisements, political
attitudes:
    and nihilism, 124-126, 133, 178-179;
    as foundations for beliefs, 9-10;
    as objects of persuasion, 8-9;
    functions of, 8-9;
    place in persuasion process, 4;
    preexisting to persuasive occasion, 148;
    role in behavioral intention theories, 202-209;
    role in model of persuasion, 11-15;
    role in social judgment theory, 149-152.
    See
also persuasion theories
attrocity stories. See
tactics of propaganda
audience:
    analysis, 147-156, 347-348;
    researching, 13;
    bonding, 146;
    credibility assigned to sender assessed by receivers in, 17
audience effects: anticipated, surprise, ideosyncratic, 147-148
audience impressions, 259. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
audience management, 158-163
auditor, defined, 146
authoritarian leadership. See
leadership styles and persuasion
authority compliance-gaining tactic, 53-54. See
also. behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
authority figures and persuasion, 176
authority warrant. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
averted gaze. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
avoidance. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
backing. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
backstage, 259. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
Baesler, James, 235, 244n23
Bagozzi, Richard, 220n11
Bahlmann, Bruce, 188, 192n26
Bamiyan Buddha statues. See
Statue of Liberty as nonverbal communication
bait and switch tactic in ads, 232, 237
Baker, Frederick, 141n13
balance theory of persuasion, 196-197, 215-217
Ball-Rokeach, Sandra, 20n13, 152, 166n10
Bandura, Albert, 194-196, 220n3
bandwagon tactic of persuasion or propaganda, 73, 77-82, 210, 377
banner headline. See
public-service print ads: creating your own
barker or salespitch. See
common formats used for television ads
Barney Beaver. See
public-service print ads: creating your own
Barraclough, Robert, 64n12
Barrel People, the, idea for children’s cartoon show, 340-341
Barriers to persuasive listening. See
reciever skills: rational
Barthes, Roland, 33-34, 41n15, 263, 270n22
Bator, Renee, 245n28
BBC, 336, 387
beauty. See
models for advertising
begging for a pass. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
begging the question. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
behavior:
    actual versus intended 11;
    drivers and persuasion, 180
belief:   
    as object of persuasion, 7-8;
    behavioral. See
behavioral-intention theories;
    “in” versus “about,” 7;
    direction, strength, importance, 8
believers, consumer category. See
Stanford Research Institute consumer categories
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting, 59-60.
behavioral intention theories, 202-209, 239. See
also composite theory of persuasion
behaviorism, 194-196
being tired as a barrier to persuasive listening. See
reciever skills: rational
Bennet, W. Lance, 337, 344n22
Berger, Charles, 20n8, 235, 244n21
Bergman, Teresa, 129-130, 141n12
Berlo, David, 244n4
Better Buisness Bureau code of ethics for advertising, 128-129
bias factors in receivers. See
paths to influence model
bias versus objectivity, 301. See
also public relations campaign model
Bible, the, citations used for persuasion, 33, 79, 92n20, 163, 216-217, 260, 322, 381
Bidwell, John, Temperence movement figure, 313
big lie, 78. See
also tactics of propaganda
Billboard Liberation Front, 334
Binder, Leonard, 296, 303, 319n2
Birdwhistell, Ray, 42n16
Black, Edwin, 281, 293n8
Blair, Tony, 350-351
black propaganda, 69, 74, 77-83, 311
blame. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
Blankenship, Jane, 254, 257, 269n6, 270n13
blood-lust. See
vices, appeals to for persuasion
Blum, Jack. See
case studies of campaign communication: Brooklyn Heights
Boklund-Lagapoulou, Karin, 41n14
bold, sweeping assertions, 311. See
also tactics of propaganda, 
Bond, L.E., 41n22
boomerang effect. See
social judgment theory
Borchers, Timothy, 23, 41n4, 237, 245n29
boredom, 371. See
also behavior: drivers and persuasion.
Bose headphones, campaign for, 306-307, 319n12
Bowers, John, 308, 319n15
brainwashing. See
coercive mind changing
Branch Davidian cult. See
cults, influence on members
Brayley, Russell, 385n5
breathiness. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Brooklyn Bridge, the. See
public-service print ads: creating your own
Brooklyn Heights Press. See
case studies of campaign communication: Brooklyn Heights
Brooklyn Heights restoration campaign. See
case studies of campaign communication: Brooklyn Heights
Brouwer, Daniel, 309, 319n16
Brown, J.A.C. 68, 82-84, 91n3, 92n19, 92n21, 92n25, 320n27
Buber, Martin, 140n3
Buller, David, 42n19, 137, 141n17, 141n18
Burch, Elizabeth, 323, 343n3
Burgoon, Judee 137, 141n17, 235, 244n23
Burgoon, Michael, 232, 244n13
Burke’s dramaturgic theory, xvii, 47-48, 250-254, 266, 269n2, 335, 343n11, 362, 374
Burroughs, Nancy, 56, 65n16
Bush, George, W., 64n10, 232, 294
buyer’s remorse, 201
Cacioppo, John, 209, 212, 221n20, 221n21
Cairns, Charles, 40n2
Cairns, Helen, 40n2
calling up attitudes in response to persuasion, 12
Cambra, Ronald, 65n18
Campbell, Margaret, 56, 65n17
campaigns, 296-307;
    five-step model, 296-297, 303, 306;
    Rogers model, 297-300;
    seven-step model, 297, 303, 306;
    uses for Rogers model, 299
campaign cases. See
case studies of campaign communication
canons of rhetoric. See
Cicero
cardstacking. See
tactics of propaganda
Carson, Rachel, 319n4
case studies of campaign communication, 301-307;
    Bose noise-cancelation product campaign, 306-307;
    Brooklyn Heights restoration project, 302-304;
    Clinton, Hillary, for senator of New York, 307;
    controversey in court, 304-306;
    Swartzenegger, Arnold, for governor of California, 307
Cash, William, 343n17
catachresis, figure of speech. See
visual rhetoric
cause and effect warrant. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
censorship, 67-68
central processing of persuasive messages. See
elaboration likelihood theory
challenge. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
Chandler, Daniel, 23, 41n6
changing the subject. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
channels used and persuasive effects, 237-238
character assassination. See
tactics of propaganda
character, 156. See
also sender credibility
chic occultism, 317
child part of adult mind:
    and gluttony, 179;
    and indoctrination, 380-383
Chorianopoulos, Konstantinos, 343n4
Christian, Julie, 209, 221n19
chronemics. See
nonverbal communication
Churchill, Winston, 176
Cialdini, Robert, 53, 59, 64n13, 176, 192n13, 245n27
Cicero, 4;
    canons of rhetoric, 45-46, 52, 62, 350
circumlocutions. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
citizens’ campaign, 297-299;
    application in community or on campus, 355-357.
    See
also case studies of campaign communication: Brooklyn Heights
claims, persuasive, 95-98;
    giving support for, 99-102;
    in Toulmin model, 103-107;
    of fact, value, policy 96-98;
    within syllogisms and ethymemes, 107-110
classical conditioning, 194
Clevenger, Theodore, 147-149, 166n3
climax. See
figures of speech
climax versus anticlimax order used in persuasive messages, 233, 241
Clinton, Bill, 373
Clinton, Hillary. See
case studies of campaign communication: Clinton
clothing, adornment and pathos. See
pathos in: clothing and adornment
clusters of coginitions. See
cognitive dissonance theory
coercive mind changing, 85, 369-370, 378;
    in cults, 379;
    in prison camps, 380-383
codes of ethics. See
ethics: codes
Cody, Michael, 64n12, 65n18
cognition, 198. See
cognitive dissonance theory
cognitive cluster. See
cognitive dissonance theory
cognitive dissonance theory, 197-202;
    dissonance reducing tactics, 201;
    examples, 217, 231, 237, 241, 305, 315, 339;
    research on, 202.
    See
also selectivity by receivers
Colossus of Rhodes. See
Statue of Liberty as nonverbal communication
Cole, Tim, 54, 64n14
Coleman, James, 319n2
common formats used for television ads, 332-334
communication models. See
models for …
communication study, description of:
    historical-critical approach, 16-17, 46, 194, 253. (See
also Aristotle);
    scientific approach, 17, 223-228
communication of innovations, 309-310
communicative leadership. See
persuasive leadership
communicative setting, topographic analysis of, 147, 151-152
compactLaw.co.uk, 353
comparison. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
comparison warrant. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
competence, 156, See
also sender credibility
competitive gamesmanship. See
paths to influence model
compliance gaining, 53-56, 202, 233, 236-237, 369-370, 374
compliance resisting, 35, 56-60
composite model of needs. See
human needs
composite theory of persuasion, 213, 214-216
composition tactic. See
Rank model
compromise. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
computer graphics used for persuasion, 238
conditional yes. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
confessions
    in cults, 315;
    in prison camps, 378-383
confidence. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
conflict. See
models for advertising
confusion tactic. See
Rank model
connotative meaning, 25-26, 263
Conquest, Robert, 91n11, 385n15
consequentialism. See
ethics: perspectives
consistency compliance-gaining tactic, 53-54. See
also behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
consistency theories, 196-202
consonance. See
cognitive dissonance theory
Constitition Party, The, 287
contrast compliance-gaining tactic, 53-54. See
also. behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
contrast effect. See
social judgment theory
context variables and persuasive effects, 240-242
contrast ad. See
advertisements, political
contrast effect. See
social judgment theory
control beliefs. See
behavioral intention theories
control groups for experimental studies, 227-228, 236-237
control need. See
human needs: Schutz
controversial or startling statement. See
openers for speeches
Cook, Thomas, 241, 246n38
Copeland, Gary, 343n8
copy, written text in an ad. See
public-service print ads: creating your own
Cornell Institute for Social and Economic Research, 155
Cosmopolitan, 182-183
counterpersuasion, 15,  239
counterpublics, 296, 307-310
courage. See
virtues, appeals to for persuasion
court trials, persuasion in, 14, 50-51,73-76, 103, 124, 135, 146, 251, 256, 260, 304-306, 352-355
Crawford, Hugh, 220n1
creation. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
credibility of sender. See
sender credibility
critical listening. See
reciever skills: rational
critical mass in a citizens’ campaign, 297. See
also citizens’ campaigns
Cronkhite, Gary, 137, 141n18, 269n1
Cuban Missile Crisis Speech, 273-277, 274-275
cues for persuasion. See
paths to influence model
Culbert, David, 91n16
Cull, Nicholas, 91n16
cultivation theory, 336
cults, influence on members, 67, 85, 314-317, 379-380
cult awareness procedures for “deprogramming” ex-cult members, 379
cultural premises, 160-163
culture jamming, 334
Cupach, William, 65n15
current events. See
openers for speeches
cynical attitude. See
skeptical versus cynical attutides for receivers of persuasive message
data. See
Argumentation: Toulman model
dating of the nouns used in persuasive messages. See
language traps
Davis, Leslie, 269n6
Davis, James, 220n11
daydreaming, as a barrier to persuasive listening. See
reciever skills: rational
death diets, coercive mind-changing, 383
debating, 29, 49-50, 72-73, 94-99, 254, 308-309, 374
decay. See
message: decay; persistence of persuasion
deception (and ethics):
    cues to, as identified in research, 136-137;
    defining, 134-135;
    types, 135-136
defining terms for arugmentation, 98-99;
    etymology, 98;
    negation, 98;
    operational terms, 89;
    stipulation, 90;
    synonyms, 90
de Guise, Jacques, 338
De Vreese, Claes, 300, 319n5
DeGeorge, Richard, 140n7
Delia, Jesse, 244n10
deliberative purpose of persuasive message. See
Aristotle: theory of
DeLuca, Kevin, 47, 64n4, 270n23, 309, 320n17
Dembroski, Theodore, 244n16
democratic leadership. See
leadership styles and persuasion
Democratic National Platform statement for 2004, 288-290, 294n20
demographic audience analysis. See
audience analysis
demographic categories (self chosen, born to), 151
demonizing, 78. See
also tactics of propaganda
demonstration. See
common formats used for television ads
denotative meaning, 25-26, 39, 263
Denton, Robert Jr., 310-311, 320n20
dependent variables, 226, 230
descriptive studies, 225, 226-227
determinants of:
    attitude component, 204. (See
also reasoned action theory);
    subject norms component, 204. (See
also reasoned action theory);
    perceived behavioral control, 207. (See
also planned behavior theory)
deterministic media-effects theory, 325
DeVito, Joseph, 166n5, 367n1
diagrams illustrating persuasion concepts. See
models and diagrams
dialogical ethics perspective. See
ethics: perspectives
diary of Anne Frank. See
Frank, Anne
discursive tactics for compliance resisting, 57-59
disqualification. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
Dillard, James, 221n23
Dionysus, cult of, 316
disconfirmation. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
disinformation, 67, 72. See
also tactics of propaganda
dispensing of existence, cult feature, 315
dissonance, range of, 198. See
also cognitive dissonance theory
diversion tactic. See
Rank model; behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
DNC. See
Democratic National Platform statement for 2004
doctoring of information as propaganda, 67-68
doctrine over person, cult feature, 315
documentaries, 14, 35, 46;
    types of, 129-131;
    and ethics. See
ethics: codes for
dodging. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
door-in-the-face approach to persuasion, 236. See
also foot-in-the-door approach
Doob, Leonard, 68, 82, 91n4
downplaying. See
Rank model
dramaturgic theories. See
Burke’s dramaturgic theory. See also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
dramaturgic discipline, 259. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
drugs, debate on legalization,  49
during-message credibilty. See
sender credibility
dynamism, 156. See
sender credibility
early adopters. See
communication of innovations
early majority. See
communication of innovations
Edwards, Heidi Hatfield, 319n13
effects:
    sleeper, 216, 241-242;
    direction of as outcome of experimental study, 227
ego-involvement or defensiveness, 158. See
also social judgment theory
Ehninger, Douglas, 64n3, 343n14, 367n1
Eisenberg, Nancy 245n28
Eighteenth Amendment to U.S. Constitution, Temperance, 312
elaboration likelihood theory, 210, 209-218;
elitism need. See
human needs: Packard
Elmhorst, Jeanne, 149-150, 166n8
Emancipation Proclamation, 281
embedded message. See
subliminal persuasion
embedded propositions, 78. See
also tactics of propaganda
emotional appeals and persuasion, 5-6, 13, 44, 52-53, 62, 122, 173-176, 223. See
also Aristotle: logos, pathos, ethos   
emotional security need. See
human needs: Packard
Encylopedia of Organizations, 156
entertainment and influence, 337-339
enthusiastic mobilization stage. See
movements, social/politcial
enthymeme. See
Aristotle: enthymeme
envy. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
environmentalics. See
nonverbal communication
epanaphora, figure of speech. See
visual rhetoric
epideictic purpose of persuasive message. See
Aristotle: theory of
equivocation. See
tactics of propaganda; See also fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
esteem need. See
human needs: Maslow
ethicizing power. See
media power, sources of
ethics, 52, 70, 255, 352;
    codes for, 123-134;
    in a communication model, 12, 13;
    perspectives, 119-122
ethos. See
Aristotle: logos, pathos, ethos
etymology, definition by, 98
Evans, Richard, 233, 244n16
evidence used for persuasion and argumentation:
    effectiveness, 232-233;
    evaluating, 100-101;
    types, 99-100
examples versus statistics used for persuasion, 235-236
excessive frowning. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
excuse. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
executive of campaign. See
citizens’ campaign
exhibiting new or changed behavior, 12
experiencers, consumer category. See
Stanford Research Institute consumer categories experimental study and design, simple example of, 223-226;
    evaluating studies, 227-228;
    in research steps model, 225
    review of published studies, 228-242
expertise in evaluating source for evidence, 100
explained no. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
exploiting common misconceptions. See
tactics for propaganda
expository type documentary. See
documentaries: types
extemporaneous speech, preparation, 347
extrinsic value added to advertisements, 326-327, 330, 375-376
eyeblink rate. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
eyebrow flashes. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
face-to-face selling. See
interpersonal persuasion
facial expressions, fleeting. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
fact claim. See
claims, persuasive: of fact, value, polity
fact-inference confusion. See
language traps: fact-inference confusion
factor analysis, 229
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language, 110-112. See
also tactics of propaganda

false cause. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
fame. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
familiarity. See
models for advertising
fatigue. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
favors compliance-gaining tactic, 53-54. See
also behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
fear appeals, 175, 234-235. See
also Aristotle: paired emotions; behavior: drivers and     persuasion; emotional appeals and persuasion
feedback from receiver to sender, 11, 12, 14, 16, 136, 157, 358, 370;
    monitoring feedback from receivers, 12
Festinger, Leon, 197, 220n6
Fico, Frederick, 334, 344n19
field dependent standards for ethics. See
ethics: codes for
field invariant or independent standards for ethics. See
ethics: codes for
Fifty-Ninth Street Bridge. See
Queensborough Bridge, sample speech outline
figures of speech, 27-30, 34, 39, 46, 95, 264
Finlay, Krystina, 208, 221n18
Finocchiaro, Maurice, 115n3
First Unitarian Church. See
case studies of campaign communication: Brooklyn Heights
Fishbein, Martin, 20n12, 202,  220n11, 245n33
Flay, Brian, 65n15, 241, 24638
Fortheringham, Wallace, 5, 20n5
focus groups, 153-155;
    dynamics of, 153
folklore as origin for empirical study, 225
follow-up questions. See
question types: for running focus groups
foot-in-the-door approach to persuasion, 236. See
also, door-in-the-face approach
foot shuffling. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Ford, Mary, 212
forms versus functions of propaganda, 83
forensic assertion. See
paths to influence model
forensic purpose of persuasive message. See
Aristotle: theory of
forming, changing, or keeping beliefs or attitdudes, 12
fortune. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
Foss, Karen, 121, 140n4
Foss, Sonja, 121, 140n4, 162-163, 270n20
frames for persuasion, 373-374
Frank, Anne, 382-383, 385n14
Fraser, Scott, 236, 245n24
Friedenberg, Robert, 282, 294n12
Freedman, Eric, 334, 344n19
Freedman, Jonathan, 236, 245n24, 338
freedom:
    versus order, 272;
    as a social need. See
human needs: Rogers
frequency of speaking. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
friendship. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
frontstage,  259. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
Fryeand, Soliel Moon. See
chic occultism
fulfilled, consumer category. See
Stanford Research Institute consumer categories
functional props. See
Goffman’s dramatugical theory
functions versus forms of propaganda, 83
Gabor, Zsa Zsa, 324
Gallup News, public opinion research database, 155
gambling. See
vices, appeals to for persuasion
gamesmanship. See
paths to influence model
Gannet Newspaper Division, 131-132, 141n16
Garthoff, Raymond, 273, 293n3
Garvey, Marianne, 320n32
gatekeepers, media, 335
gatekeeping power. See
media power, sources of
Geis, Michael, 331, 343n16
gender and persuasive effects, 239
generalization warrant. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
generalizing of experimental research findings, 223, 227
genesis stage. See
movements, social/politcial
gentleness. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
gererosity. See
virtues, appeals to for persuasion.
German, Kathleen, 64n3, 367n1
getting-attention stage during influence:
    for focus group management, 154;
    in propaganda strategy, 83;
    motivated sequencce, 47;
    Yale approach, 46.
    See
also models for advertising
Gettysburg Address, 277-279, 281, 293n6. See
also Lincoln, Abraham
Gilkinson, Howard, 244n14
glamour need. See
human needs: Packard
glittering generalities. See
language of advertising
gluttony. See
vices, appeals to for persuasion
God/Devil terms, 25-26
Godfrey, Arthur, 339
Goffman’s dramaturgic theory, 258-261, 259
Goffman, Erving, 270n16
Goldman, Rachel, 212, 221n21
Gonchar, Ruth, 320n19
goodwill, 167n16. See
also sender credibility
Gordon, Ann, 232, 244n12
Gore, Al, 64n10, 232
Gottdiener, Mark, 41n14
graciousness. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
grammar and persuasion. See
syntax
gray propaganda, 68-69, 74, 78-81, 75, 77, 79
Great Experiment in democracy, 278, 280
Green, Beth, 245n28
Green Party, The, 287
Grice, George, 167n16, 367n1
Gromyko, Andre, 273
Gronbeck, Bruce, 64n3, 245n29, 319n3, 343n14, 367n1, 368n12, 385n3
Grube, Joel, 20n13
Grunig, James, 300, 319n6
guilt. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
Gunthert, Albert, 335, 344n20
Gutenberg, Johannes, 322
Hahn, Dan, 269n7, 272, 293n1, 320n19
hair grooming. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Hammond, Joshua, 161, 167n23
haptics. See
nonverbal communication
Hari Krishnas. See
cults, influence on members
Harrigan, Jinni, 42n17
Harry, Joseph, 323, 343n3
Hassan, Steven, 379-380, 385n9
hasty generalization. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
hatred. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
head nodding. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Heaven’s Gate cult, 316-317
Hearst, Patty, 316, 320n30
Hecht, Michael, 65n15
Heider, Fritz, 220n4
Helmers, Marguerite, 270n19
Hendriks, Alexandra, 167n17
Henning, Bernd, 336, 344n21
heuristic cues for evaluating messages, 157, 287.  See
also elaboration likelihood theory
Hidden Persuaders, the, 172
Hill, Charles, 262, 270n19
Hill, Forbes, 64n1, 147, 166n2, 191n6, 255-258, 270n8
Hilton, Paris, 324
historical trends in news and entertainment media, 339-340
Hitler, Adolph, 159, 314
Hoang, Vicki, 236, 245n25
Holli, Semetko, 300, 319n5
Honeycutt, Lee, 270n15
horse-race versus issues analysis, 113, 300, 334-335
Hovland, Carl, 64n2
how to read and criticize written persuasion, 372
Huckfeldt, Robert, 220n10
Huesmann, L. Rowell, 338
Hullett, Craig, 65n18
Humorsphere.com, one-liners, 367n6
human needs, 169-173;
    Maslow, 170;
    Schutz, 170;
    Rogers, 170-171;
    Packard, 172-173, 330
humanistic ethics perspective. See
ethics: perspectives
humanistic perspective used for studying persuasion, iviii, xx, 250
humor used for persuasion, 230, 329, 361. See
models for advertising
hunches as origin for research study, 225
Hunt, Todd, 300, 319n6
Hunter, John, 221n16
hyperbole:
    conversational, 328.
    visual, 264;
    See
also figures of speech
hypotheses for experimintal studies, xix, 136, 153, 225, 224-227, 236, 262
icebreakers. See
interpersonal persuasion
iconoclasts, historical context for visual rhetoric, 267
ideosyncratic audience effect. See
audience effects: anticipated, surprise, ideosyncratic
ignoring. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
illogic. See
tactics of propaganda
illustrations of a theme. See
openers for speeches
illustrators, fewer. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
image events, 47, 263-264, 309
Imahori, T., 65n15
impressions management, 50, 68, 75, 82, 114, 124, 157, 259, 328, 350, 362.
     See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory of impressions management
inappropriateness. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
inartistic proofs. See
Aristotle: theory of
Inch, Edward, 94, 99, 110-112, 115n2
inclusion need. See
human needs: Schutz
incommunicado incarceration, 85, 320n30, 378, 380
independent variables, 225-228, 238
indexing of the nouns used in persuasive messages. See
language traps
indignation. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
indoctrination, 84-85, 88, 369, 378-382;
    methods used in cults, 379.
    See
also psychological warfare
induced receiver factors, 239-240
inducement avoidance. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
industrial revolution and the “isms” of the last century
informational power. See
media power, sources of
infrastructural help or hinderance of mission. See
citizens campaign model of
innovators. See
communication of innovations
inoculation, 51-52, 64n10, 216, 239-40, 242, 246n36, 392
Institute for Propaganda Analysis, 77
instrumental values. See
values, terminal versus instrumental
intensifying. See
Rank model
interest groups,  xx, 4, 272, 283-286
intermittent schedule. See
reinforcement schedules
interactive media, 338, 340-341
internal versus external political communication, 272
International Social Survey Program, 163
interpersonal persuasion, 359-363
interrogation centers and methods, 378, 380-381
interviews. See
surveys, interviews and observations for audience research. See also common formats used for television ads
intrinsic value designed into product advertised, 327
involuntary exposure to indoctrination, 380-381
iron cross, 86
irony. See
figures of speech
irrelevant cognitions. See
cognitive dissonance theory
issues analysis. See
horse-race versus issues analysis
Jackall, Robert, 91n13
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, 326, 336, 343n10, 344n21
Janson, H.W., 140n9
Janis, Irving, 64n2
Jensen, Richard, 308, 319n15
Johannesen, Richard, 119-123, 140n1
Johnson, Blair, 245n33
Johnson, Danette, 237, 245n26
Johnson, Paul, 220n10
Johnson, Thomas, 20n4
Johnson-Cartee, Karen, 343n8
jokes or one-liners. See
openers for speeches
Jones, Karyn Ogata, 319n13
Jones, Jim, cult leader. See
cults, influence on members
Jordan, William, 64n12
Jowett, Garth, 69, 83, 86, 91n6, 91n7
Justice. See
virtues, appeals to for persuasion. See also human needs: Rogers
justification. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
juxtaposition of images. See
visual rhetoric
Kabbalah, 317, 320n32, 320n33
Kaelin, Kato, 324
Kalbfleish, 64n8
Katula, Richard, 64n1, 270n8
Katz, Daniel, 20n10
Kaye, Barbara, 20n4
Kearney, Patricia, 56, 65n16
Kellermann, Kathy, 54, 64n14
Kelly, Aune, 42n19
Kelly, Harold, 64n2
Kelly, Kathleen, 319n5
Kendall, Patricia, 166n11
Kennedy, John, 273-277
Key, Wilson, 181, 192n22
kinesics. See
nonverbal communication
King, Reverend Martin Luther Jr., 16, 177, 311
King, Wesley, 238, 245n32
Kirmani, Amna, 56, 65n17
Kluback, 115n3
Knapp, Mark, 141n18
Koresh, David, cult leader. See
cults, influence on members
Khrushchev, Nikita, 273-277, 293n5
Kultgen, John, 140n7
Kutcher, Aston. See
chic occultism
Kwak, Nojin, 245n34
labeling tactic, 237
Labossiere, Michael, 117n19
laggards. See
communication of innovations
Lagopoulos, Alexandros, 41n14
laissez-faire leadership. See
leadership styles and persuasion
Lalance and Grosjean 1800s ad, 326
Lancaster, Clay, 302, 319n7. See
also case studies of campaign communication: Brooklyn Heights
Langer, Suzanne, 23, 41n5
language of advertising, 331-332
language traps:
    dating and indexing, 31-32;
    fact-inference confusion, 30;
    hypostatization, 32;
    map is not the territory, 31
LaPolombara, Joseph, 319n2
Lariscy, Ruthann Weaver, 319n13
Larson, Charles, 5, 20n6, 68, 91n5, 161, 167n18, 228, 238, 243n3
Lasater, Thomas, 244n16
Lasn, Kalle, 334
late majority. See
communication of innovations
Lazerfeld, Paul, 343n5
leadership ideal for influencing others, xvii-xviii, 70, 73, 88, 146, 176, 281, 345-346, 355
leadership styles and persuasion, 345-346
learning theory, 194-196
Leathers, Dale, 141n18
Lee, Christy, 65n18
Lee, Eun-Ju, 230, 244n6
Lee, Hoon, 245n34
legalistic ethics perspective
leg crossing. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
legitimacy power. See
media power, sources of
Lennon, Bill, 64n7
Levine, Timothy, 65n18
Levinson, Martin, 41n8
Libertarian Party, The, 287
Liebhart, Janice, 335, 344n20
Lifton, Robert, 315, 320n29
Likert scale, 206, 220n5
Lincoln, Abraham, 41n12, 277-281
lines, used for impressions management, 259. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
lip biting. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Liska, Jo Ruth, 137, 141n18, 269n1
listening  barriers. See
receiver skills: for rational messages
listening skills, persuasive. See
receiver skills: for rational messages
Liu, Luci. See
chic occultism
Livaditi, Julia, 343n4
Livingston, Steven, 337, 344n22
loading the language tactic, cult feature, 315
Lobbying Handbook, The, 284
logic circle, 108. See
also argumentation: Toulmin model of
logos. See
Aristotle: logos, pathos, ethos
loneliness. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
Los Angeles Times, 304
Lougos, Christos, 343n4
low-ball tactic, 232, 237, 245n27
lowest common denominator, 336
Lupia, Arthur, 231, 244n8
Macbeth,  291
Machiavellianism, 136
Mackey-Kallis, Susan, 269n7
Madonna. See
chic occultism
magic feature of advertising. See
advertisements: features of
magnanimity. See
virtues, appeals to for persuasion
magnificence. See
virtues, appeals to for persuasion
makers, consumer category. See
Stanford Research Institute consumer categories
making product name memorable. See
models for advertising
manner, Burkean dramaturgical term,  259, 266. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
Manson, Charles, cult leader. See
cults, influence on members
map is not the territory. See
language traps
marginalizing the opposition. See
tactics of propaganda
Martinez, Andrea, 338
masked smiles. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
masking, 134
Maslow, Abraham, 170, 171,191n2
Matei, Sorin, 152, 166n10
Matz, David, 220n10
Mazur, Michelle, 64n8
McCluskey, Michael, 245n34
McCroskey, James, 166n14
McCubbins, Mathew 231, 244n8
McElroy, John, 160-161, 167n22
McKerrow, Raymie, 343n14
McLaughlin, Margaret, 65n18
McLean, Daniel, 385n5
McQuail, Denis, 146, 166n1, 319n6, 343n4
McQuarrie, Edward, 270n24
media ethics. See
ethics: codes for
media power, sources of, 322-325
Mecury Theatre on the Air and mass panic, 324
Media Awareness Network, 337, 344n23
Mendelson, Andrew, 335, 344n20
Merton, Robert, 166n11, 343n5
Mertz, Robert, 244n4
message:
    approach to studying persuasion, 44;
    channels, 237-239
    content, 233-236;
    decay, 241, 327-328;
    mixed, 135;
    structure, 233
message-oriented approach to studying persuasion, xviii, 44
message variables and persuasive effects, 232-237
metaphor, 257. See
also Aristotle: metaphor; figures of speech
metonymy. See
figures of speech
Metts, Sandra, 65n15
Meyerowitz, Joshua, 35,42n18
Mick, David, 264, 270n24
milieu control, cult feature 315
Millar, Murray, 236, 245n25
Miller, Jerry, 232, 244n12
Miller-Rassulo, Michelle, 65n15
Min-Sun, Kim, 221n16
minor theories about features of persuasion, 215, 216
Mirzoeff, Nicholas, 270n18
misdirection, 135-136. See
also tactics of propaganda
mission criteria. See
citizens’ campaign
mission for a personal campaign, 355-356
mithras, cult of, 316
models of communication, benefits of, 11;
models and diagrams, for:
    advertising, 328-331;
    balance theory, 197;
    calculating behavioral intentions, 204, 207;
    citizens’ campaign, 297;
    cognitive dissonance, four outcomes, 198;
    composite theory, 213;
    elaboration likelihood theory, 210;
    five paths for influence, 74;
    impressions management, 259;
    persuasion, 12;
    public relations, 301;
    sender credibility, pereceptions of, 156;
    steps for empircial research, 225;
    Rank model of influence, 71;
    topoi  for persuasion: personal, interpersonal, social, 17;
    Toulmin analysis of arguments, six terms, 104;
    valid versus invalid arguments about Rub-A-Dub, 108
Mongeau, Paul, 175, 191n11
monomorphic campaigns, 299
Monroe, Alan, 64n5, 343, 367n1
Moon, Reverend, cult leader. See
cults, influence on members
Moore, Demi. See
chic occultism
morality need. See
human needs: Rogers
morphed images art, and persuasion, 127, 188
Morreale, Joanne, 245n29, 319n3, 368n12, 385n3
Morrison, James, 161, 167n23
Mother Russia. See
Statue of Liberty as nonverbal communication
Motivated Sequence model of persuasion, 47;
    applied to advertising, 328
movements, social/political, 310-314
Moy, Patricia, 239, 245n34
Muellerleile, Paige, 245n33
Munch, Edward, 187
Murphy, James, 64n1, 270n8
music and pathos. See
pathos in: music
mutational questions. See
question types: for running focus groups
MyLawer.com, persuasion in small-claims court, 352-355
mystical manipulation, cult feature 315
mystery religions, See
n as cults, 316
Muzak, 184
Nabi, Robin, 167n17
Nader, Ralph, 319n4
name substitutions. See
language of advertising
Napoleon, 126, 159
narcotizing power. See
media power, sources of
Nation, Cary, 312
National Association of Milk Bottle Collectors, 285
National Education Association, 285
National Opinion Research Center, 155
National Park Service, 293n6
National Rifle Association, 285
needs and persuasion. See
human needs
negative identity management. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
negotiation. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
neutrality, compliance-gaining tactic, 55
New York Times, 117n21, 336, 373
news, ethics. See
ethics: codes for
Nichols, Bill, 129-130, 140n11, 141n14
nihilism. See
vices, appeals to for persuasion; attitudes and nihilism
nonfluencies of senders and credibility, 229
non-negotiation. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
non sequitur. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
nonverbal communication, persuausive uses of, 33-36
nonverbal no. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
normative beliefs. See
behavioral intenion theories
novelty tactic. See
models for advertising
objection. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
objectivity in evaluating source for evidence, 101
O’Donnell, Victoria, 69, 83, 86, 91n6, 91n7
O’Hair, Dan, 65n15, 65n18, 163, 166n14, 244n5, 367n1
O’Hair, Mary, 65n18
O’Keefe, Daniel, 20n11, 166n14, 191n9, 212, 220n10, 228, 234, 243n3, 244n17
observational type documentary. See
documentaries: types
observations type research. See
surveys, interviews and observations for audience research
Ochs, Donovan, 64n1, 270n8, 308, 319n15
Olbrechts-Tyteca, Lucie, 95, 112, 115n4
omission tactic. See
Rank model
one-sided versus two-sided messages used for persuasion, 52, 234
one-liners or jokes. See
openers for speeches
one-way versus two-way flow of communictation,  301. See
also public relations campaign model
openers for speeches, 351-352
opening a business, 357-259
operant conditioning, 194-195
Osgood, Charles,41n7
outline organization, chronological, topical, spatial, and so on, 349;
    as part of steps model of persuason, 12
outlines for speeches. See
speechmaking
other or outside influences and persuasive effects, 12
Packard, Vance, 172, 191n5, 343n13
pain. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
palsy. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Paquette, Guy, 338
participatory type documentary. See
documentaries: types
Patch, Michael, 236, 245n25
Paulson, Stanley, 244n14
pathos in:
    advertising, 182-183;
    archritecture, 184-187;
    clothing and adornment, 183-184;
    conversational dispute, 173, 174;
    music, 184;
    postmodern art, 187-189;
    traditional art, 187.
    See
also Aristotle: logos, pathos, ethos
paths to persuasion, four strategic, 244n35
paths to influence model, 72-77.
party platform statements, 287-290
Paul, Les, 212
pausing when answering questions. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
PBS. See
Public Broadcasting System
Pavlov, Ivan, 194, 380-381
peace need. See
human needs: Rogers
Pearsall, Otis and Nancy, 319n8. See
also case studies of campaign communication: Brooklyn Heights
Pechmann, Cornelia, 234, 244n18
Peck, Eugenia, 221n23
Penthouse, 151, 183, 329
perceived behavioral control. See
behavioral intentions theories
perceived subjective norms. See
behavioral intentions theories
Perelman, Chaim, 95, 112, 115n4
peripheral processing. See
elaboration likelihood theory
persistence of persuasion, 241. See
also message: decay
personal campaigns, pursuing, 355-357
personal experience. See
openers for speeches
personality attributes of receivers during influence, 74
personification, See
figures of speech
persuader, 45
persuasion defined, 4-6
persuasion in public, 346-359
persuasive leadership, xviii, 70, 73. See
also leadership ideal for influencing others; leadership
persuasive listening. See
receiver skills: for rational messages
styles and persuasion; paths to influence to influnce model
pet rocks and tulip-mania, fads, 330
Petty, Richard, 209, 212, 221n20, 221n21
Pfau, Michael, 240, 246n36
physiological need. See
human needs: Maslow
Picasso, Pablo, 187
pitch breaks. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
pity. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
plan, organize message, 12
planned behavior theory. See
behavioral intentions theories
platform statements. See
party platform statements
Plato, 4
Plax, Timothy, 56, 65n16
poetic type documentary. See
documentaries: types
policy claim.  See
claims, persuasive: of fact, value, policy
political discourse, ethics of . See
ethics: codes for
political parties, influence of, 286-290;
    functions of, 286;
    party platform statements, 287- 290, 288-289;
    minor political parties, 287
political values ethics-perspective. See
ethics: perspectives
political guru, 300
polymorphic campaigns. See
citizen’s campaign steps, model of
positive identity management. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
post-message credibility. See
sender credibility
postmodern art and pathos, 187-189.
poster propaganda, 325
posture shifts. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Potter, Jonathan, 166n12
Power kept versus shared, 301. See
also public relations campaign model
power need. See
human needs: Packard
power play. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
power, compliance-gaining tactic, 55
praise/build up. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
Pratkanis, Anthony, 92n22, 281, 293n9, 320n28, 385n7
pre-addressing counterpersuasion, 15. See
also inoculation
pre-message credibility See
sender credibility
premises for persuasion, 102-103. See
also cultural premises
presence, receiver effect:
    defined,  15, 262;
    and decay, 241-242, 327-328
presentation aids for speeches, 350
presenting messages in some medium, 12
presidential persuasion, 273-282
presidential press conferences, 281-283
press conferences. See
presidential press conferences
pressure, compliance-gaining tactic, 55
primacy versus recency, 241
printing press. See
Johannes, Gutenberg
product placement, 133, 337
profane feature of advertising. See
advertisements: features of
promote versus inform, 301. See
also public relations campaign model
props, symbolic, functional, 259. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
propaganda:   
    black, grey, white, 68-69;
    consumption skills, 376-378
    defining, 69-70;
    forms versus functions, 83;
    strategic considerations, 51-53.
    See
also tactics of propaganda; paths to influence model
proportionality ideal when influencing others, xvii-xviii, 70, 88, 132
propositions for argumentation and debate. See
claims
prosperity need. See
human needs: Rogers
proxemics. See
nonverbal communication
prudence. See
virtues, appeals to for persuasion
psychographic audience analysis. See
audience analysis
psychological warfare, 67, 84, 114. See
also indoctrination
public relations campaign model, 300-301
public relations, styles of, 301
public-service print ads: creating your own, 363-366
Public Broadcasting System, 320n31
publics. See
counterpublics
Puchta, Claudia, 166n13
pupil dilation. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
purification, cult feature, 315
purpose. See
Burke’s dramaturgic theory
purpose, defining for persuasion, 12
purposes for speeches. See
speechmaking
pursuasiveness in court, 353
push polling, 155
Pye, Lucian, 319n2
Q = A + 1, in presidential news conferences, 282
qualifier. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
quantitative methods of research, 223-238
quasi-logical arguments. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
Queens College Student Union, Steven Hassen and Unification Church representatives, 379-380
Queensborough Bridge, sample speech outline, 48
question types:
    for running focus groups, 153;
    for sorting and identifying claims and propositions, 96-98
repeated questions when answering. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Quintillion, 4
quotations. See
openers for speeches
Rabinowitz, Dorothy, 305-306, 319n9, 319n10, 319n11
radical political social/politcial, 314
random procedures for recruiting/assigning subjects to treatment/control groups, 17, 223, 225, 226-228
random schedules. See
reinforcement schedules
Rank model, 71-72
Rank, Hugh, 91n8. See
also Rank model
ratios, pentadic, 252. See
also Burke’s dramaturgic theory
rationality ideal when influencing others, xvii-xviii, 70, 88, 161
Rauch, Jonathan, 20n3, 283, 294n13
Reardon, Kathleen, 65n15
reading and criticizing persuasive messages, 371-372
reasearch deisgn, 226
recency in evaluating evidence, 101
relevance in evaluating evidence, 101
reseaching topics, 12
reasoned action theory. See
behavioral intention theories
receiver and balance theory, 197
receiver approach to studing persuasion, 44
receiver bias for type influence, 74
receiver selectivity. See
selectivity by receivers
receiver skills for:
    motivation-driven messages, 374-378;
    rational messages, 370-374;
    surviving indoctrination and coercive mind changing, 378
receiver variables and persuasive effects, 239-240
receivers for message with logos, pathos and ethos, 45
recommendation-specifity tactic used for persuasion, 233
recruiting subjects for experimental studies, 223
redirected yes. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
reflexsive type documentary. See
documentaries: types
Reich, Robert, 161, 167n25
Reid, Ronald, 281, 294n10
reinforcement schedules, 194-195
reject or accept persuasive message, 12
rejection. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
relative quiet stage. See
movements, social/political
relentless attack. See
tactics of propaganda
reliability in evaluating evidence, 100
religious ethics perspective. See
ethics: perspectives
repetition tactic. See
Rank model
Republican National Platform statement for 2004, 288-290, 294n21
reputation. See
sender credibility
research designs, 224
research questions, specific type, for experimental studies, 224, 225
research, published experimental studies on persuasion, 147-156, 348
research for speeches, 346-350
reservation. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
resources for citizen campaigns, 297. See
also citizens’ campaigns
repsonse latency. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
response mode of receiver during influence,  74
restricted pitch variety. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Reagan, Ronald, 373
Reynolds, Rodney, 244n13
rhetoric, 195, 249-258, 262-267;
    stories, 4;
    complications, 13;
    standards created by critics 17;
    See
also, visual rhetoric; Aristotle; Burke’s dramaturgic theory
rhetorical criticism, 47
rhetorical question, See
figures of speech
Rhoads, Kelton, 245n28
Rhodes, Nancy, 235, 244n22
Rice, Jonah, 270n21
ridicule. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
Rideout, Virtoria, 339, 344n27
Riffee, Melissa, 237, 245n26
Robey, Carl, 65n18
Robison, Wade, 140n7
Rogers, Everett, 20n9, 309-310, 320n18
Rogers, William, 42n20, 141n18, 170-172, 245n30, 297, 343n7
Rokeach, Milton, 20n13
role-playing. See
social learning theory
Roloff, Maichael, 237, 245n26
Romer, Daniel, 336, 344n21
RNC. See
Republican National Platform statement for 2004
roots need. See
human needs: Packard
Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, 155
Rosanthal, Robert, 42n17
Roskos-Ewoldsen, David, 235, 244n22
Rottenberg, Annette, 94, 105-107, 115n1
Rountree, J. Clarke III, 269n5
Rozelle, Richard, 244n16
Rub-A-Dub, fictional horse, 105, 108, 116n14, 200
Rubenstein, Hannah, 163, 166n14, 244n5, 367n1
running for office, 359
sabotage. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
sacred science, cult feature, 315
safety need. See
human needs: Maslow
Safire, William, 373, 385n2
sales pitch or barker. See
common formats used for television ads
Sapir-Whoph hypothesis, 40n2
Sargant, William, 380, 385n10
scarcity compliance-gaining tactic, 53-54. See
also behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
scene. See
Burke’s dramaturgic theory
Schaffner, Brian, 286, 294n19
Scherer, Klaus, 42n17
Schuetz, Janice, 115n3
Schmalz, Bill, 334
Schmitt, Kathleen, 335, 344n20
Schudson, Michael, 343n9
Schutz, William, 170, 191n3
science, education and ethics. See
ethics: codes for
Schweitzer, James, 244n4
screening, by recivers of message, 15
seating choice, immediacy. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
secrets, dark, strategic. 259. See
also Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
selecting materials and strategy for persuasive messages, 12
selectivity by receivers, 14;
    selective exposure, attention, retention, perception, 201
self-actualization need. See
human needs: Maslow
self-esteem and persuasive effects, 239
self-fulfilling prophecy, 23
self-gratification need. See
human needs: Packard
self-promotional gamesmanship. See
paths to influence model
self-serving definitions of words. See
tactics of propaganda
semiotics. See
nonverbal communication
semi-structured question. See
question types: for running focus groups
sender and balance theory, 197
sender attractiveness and persuasion, 232
sender attributes for persuading potential dating partners, 360, 361-362
sender credibility and persuasion, 4-5, 14, 156, 157-158, 229-231;
    assessment loop, 12
sender likeability and persuasion, 231-232
sender preference for type influence, 74
sender variables and persuasive effects, 229-232
sender’s perceived similarity to receivers and persuasion, 231-232
Seventeen, 150
sex need. See
human needs: Packard
sexual promiscuity. See
vices, appeals to for persuasion
Shakespeare, William, 116n11, 258, 291
shame. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
shamelessness. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
Sherif, Carolyn, 149, 234, 244n19
Sherif, Muzafer, 149, 234, 244n19
shibboleth thinking, 83, 92n20
signification, 25
signifier. See
signification
significance of statistical effects in experimental studies, 227
Signorielli, Nancy, 338, 344n26
signs, indexical, iconic, symbolic, 23-25, 33, 105-106, 175, 183, 210, 255, 304
sign warrant. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
Sikkink, Donald, 244n14
simile. See
figures of speech
Simons, Herbert, 237, 245n29, 296-297, 303, 306, 319n3, 368n12, 373, 376-377, 385n3
simple no. See
discursive tactics for compliance resisting
situational ethics perspective. See
ethics: perspectives
size of effects in experimental studies, 227
skeptical versus cynical attutides for receivers of persuasive messages, 134, 371, 378
Skinner, B.F., 194, 220n2
Skinner, John, 367n1
Skinner, Robert, 167n16
Slater, Michael, 319n5
sleeper effect. See
effects: sleeper
slippery slope. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
slogans. See
language of advertising
small-business persuit. See
opening a business
small-claims court, making your case, 352-355
Smith, Craig Allen, 310, 320n20
Smith, Lisa, 231, 244n9
social affiliations of receivers during influence, 74
social judgment theory, 149-150
social learning theory, 195
social need. See
human needs: Maslow
social unrest stage. See
movements, social/political
Society of Professional Journalists, 131, 141n15
socio-geo-political campaign environment. See
citizen’s campaign steps, model of
sociographics. See
audience management
soft sell, compliance-gaining tactic, 55
song and dance feature in ads. See
common formats used for television ads
source credibility. See
sender credibility
space exploration, persuasive message for, 253
Spanish Inquisition, 381
Spears, Britney. See
chic occultism
speech errors. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
speechmaking, spoken or written, 346-352
Sprague, John, 220n10
Squire, Major General George O., 184
Staats, Arthur, 220n1
Staats, Carolyn, 220n1
Stalin, Joseph, 159, 314
Stanford Research Institute, consumer categories 375, 385
statistics versus examples used for persuasion, 235
statistics, evaluating as evidence as evidence, 101
Statue of Liberty as nonverbal communication, 37-38
status-conferring power. See
media power, sources of
stelae, as ancient propaganda forms, 67
Stephanson, Geoffrey, 220n11
stereotypes. See
tactics of propaganda
Stewart, Charles, 310, 320n20, 343n17
Stewart, Rob, 64n12, 163, 166n14, 167n26 244n5, 367n1
stimulation. See
behavior: drivers and persuasion
stories and storytelling:
    as a general format for persuasion, 4, 14, 19n1, 47, 244n23, 250-252, 265;
    acecdotes. See
openers for speeches;
    treatment, aspect of news reporting, 334;
    narratives. See
common formats used for television ads
strategies of:
    campaigns. See
citizens’ campaign
    persuasion, 51-53;
    propaganda, 77
straw-man. See
fallacies of: faulty reasoning, grounding, misdirection, language
Streb, Mathew, 286, 294n19
strivers, Standford Research Institute consumer categories. See
advertisements: responding to
structured questions. See
question types: for running focus groups
strugglers, consumer category. See
Stanford Research Institute consumer categories
Stypulkowski, Zbigniew, victim of coerced confession methods, 383
subliminal persuasion, 169, 180-182
substance abuse. See
vices, appeals to for persuasion. See also Temperance movement, in     movements, social/political
substitution of names. See
tactics of propaganda
subthreshold message. See
subliminal persuasion
subvertising, 334
Suci, George, 41n7
sufficiency in evaluating breadth and depth of evidence, 101
suggestion, 68
surfacing. See
running for office
surprise audience effect. See
audience effects: anticipated, surprise, ideosyncratic
surveys, interviews and observations for audience research, 155-156
suspense. See
models for advertising
surreal images. See
common formats used for television ads
survival skills for indoctrination and coercive mind changing. See
receirver skills for
suspended disbelief of receivers as audience members, 148, 328, 376
Sussman, Steve, 65n15
Swartzenegger, Arnold. See
campaign cases
Swencionis, Charles, 380-381, 385n11
Symbionese Liberation Army. See
cults, influence on members
symbiotic feature of advertising. See
advertisements: features of
symbolic props. See
Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
symbols, 5, 22-25, 28, 250, 262, 326
syllogism, 46;
    categorical, 107;
    conditional, 109;
    disjunctive, 108
syncretic feature of advertising. See
advertisements: features of
synecdoche, figure of speech. See
visual rhetoric
syntax and persuasion, 26-27
tactics of influence in campaigns. See
citizens’ campaign;
tactics of:
    persuasion, 51-53;
    propaganda, 77-82
Taj Mahal, 188
Talk-show atmosphere. See
common formats used for television ads
Tamborini, Ron, 65n18
Tanaka, Keiko, 245n34
Tannen, Deborah, 84, 92n24
Tannenbaum, Percy, 41n7
target groups. See
citizens’ campaign
Taylor, Philip, 91n1
Taylor, Shelley, 235, 244n3
technical-expertise power. See
media power, sources of
teams and groups for impressions management. See
Goffman’s dramaturgic theory
temperance. See
virtues, appeals to for persuasion
Temperance movement. See
movements, social/political
termination stage. See
movements, social/politcial
terminal values. See
values, terminal versus instrumental
Therrien, Robert, 270n28
thesis. See
theses for speeches
theses for speeches. See
speechmaking
Times of London, 336
thought-provoking questions. See
openers for speeches
Thompson, Craig, 160,167n21
Thompson, Suzanne, 235, 244n23
Thorson, Esther, 335, 344n20
Tinkham, Spencer F., 319n13
topic and balance theory, 197
topics for pursuing a personal campaign, 355-356.
topographic audience analysis, See
audience analysis
topoi or topus. See
Aristotle: topoi
Torres, Marcos, 245n34
Toulmin model. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
Toulmin, Stephen, 103, 105, 116n9
traditional art and pathos. See
pathos in: traditional art
Trafimow, David, 208, 221n18
trains, community resource, 365. See
also public-service print ads: creating your own
transitional questions question types: for running focus groups
transivity argument, 112
trauma theory, Ivan Pavlov, 380-381
Trapp, Robert, 115n3
treatment, or experimental,  groups, 227
Trent, Judith, 282, 294n12
trickery, compliance-gaining tactic, 55
Trump, Donald, 324
Tufte, Edward R., 264, 270n27
tulip-mania and pet-rocks fads as valued objects, 330
turning the tables. See
behavioral avoidance tactics for compliance resisting
Twenty-First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, repealing prohibition, 313
Twitchell, James, 327, 343n12, 374, 385n4
two-step process of selling. See
models for advertising
two-way versus one-way, 301 . See
public relations campaign model
Tse-tung, Mao, 159
ubiquitous feature of advertising. See
advertisements: features of
UPI (United Press International), 336
U.S. Army, 153
unflattering images. See
tactics of propaganda
ungraciousness. See
Aristotle: paired emotions
unlabeled hyperbole. See
tactics of propaganda
United Press International. See
UPI
unsubstantiated attrocity stories. See
tactics of propaganda
uses and gratificitions power. See
media power, sources of
uses and gratifictions theory, 323, 325
utilitarian ethics perspective. See
ethics: perspectives
validity of research findings, 223-228
VALS 2 system, 385n5
value claim. See
claims, persuasive: of fact, value, polity
values, terminal versus instrumental, 10
values warrant. See
argumentation: Toulmin model of
Van der Voot, Tom, 338
Van Doren, Charles, 371-372, 385n1
Vandewater, Elizabeth, 339, 344n27
Van Mulken, Margot, 270n24, 270n26
Vasile, Albert, 367n1
Vassilopoulou, Konstantina, 343n4
verbal slips. See
deception (and ethics): cues to
Verber, Sidney, 319n2
vested interests of receivers during influence, 74
vices, appeals to for persuasion, 178-180
video-art, 188-189
video montage. See
common formats used for television ads
violence. See
vices, appeals to for persuasion
visual figuratives, 264, 328
visual images, 22, 35, 47, 262-266, 336
visual rhetoric, 262-268;
    “ping-pong” cross-narrowing and -expanding of verbal and visual meanings, 262
virtual person or audience, 159
virtues, appeals to for persuasion, 48, 83, 123, 169, 171-172, 176-178, 309
visual rhetoric, xx, 169, 262-267, 276, 307, 377
vitalness. See
models for advertising
vocalics. See
nonverbal communication
voluntary exposure to indoctrination in cults, 379-380
Volstead Act, Temperance movement, 312
Vorderer, Peter, 336, 344n21
wall pictures as video art, 188
Wall Street Journal, 336
Wan, Hua-Hsin, 240, 246n36
Wang, Xiaoru, 245n34
Warner, Michael, 319n14
Warner, Ralph, 353-354, 367n7
Warnick, Barbara, 94, 99, 110-112, 115n2
warrants. See
argumentation: